We help you attain optimal performance

Are your intentions clear

Mind Body, Flow.

Perform With Open Heart, Happy Heart

Learn To Win

Expectation that you will meet goal/challenge

Relief From Pain

Improve Focus, Attention & Clear thinking

Improve Sleep

Improve Memory

Overcome Anxiety/Depression

Reduce Dependence on Medicines

Neurofeedback Research

A New Paradigm for Healing

Call uscall:


rss email



"Champions aren't made in gyms. Champions are made from something they have deep inside them: A desire, a dream, a vision. They have to have last-minute stamina, they have to be a little faster, they have to have the skill and the will. But the will must be stronger than the skill."

Muhammad Ali

Memory is the Brain

Memory is the brain's ability to store, retain, and recall information, and that ability can change, for better or for worse, throughout a person's life. Memories are patterns of connections among the brain's nerve cells, or neurons that are stored in the top layers of the cerebral hemispheres. They're formed when one neuron releases a chemical neurotransmitter, signaling another neuron at a connection point called a synapse (the average person's brain creates 500 trillion to 1,000 trillion synapses over a lifetime). This signaling causes the brain to rewire its structural connections, creating and strengthening memories. The more you exercise your brain, either by performing mental tasks or by learning new things, the greater the changes in brain connectivity.


The hippocampus, located in the medial temporal lobes near the center of the brain, is responsible for making memories stick and for turning short-term memories into long-term ones. The neocortex, on the outer surface of the brain, mediates conscious thought and stores long-term memories.


References: Foer, Joshua National Geographic (November 2007), 32-57. Mohs, Richard. "How Human Memory Works." Other Resources History of the Brain. PBS.


Our brains reach their peak size when we're in our early 20s, and then slowly decline for the rest of our lives. But a shrinking brain doesn't necessarily mean a worse memory. And research shows that people can improve their ability to remember or slow the process of memory loss with a few easy tricks.


For example, odors can be used to reinforce new memories while we sleep. A 2007 study surrounded sleeping people with the scent of roses, which activated the hippocampus, the part of the brain associated with learning new things. The people exposed to odors at night remembered more of what they'd learned the day before than people who hadn't been exposed. Not a fan of roses? Try potpourri or scented oils.


Getting a good night's rest is also important. Sleeping eight hours or more a night can improve your memory of something newly learned by up to 30 percent. For memories to be stored efficiently, people should experience both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep. These two phases are believed to contribute to different aspects of memory formation, and both appear to be necessary to maximizing learning.


A balanced diet and regular exercise are also good ways to keep an active memory healthy, slow the onset of dementia (a progressive decline in cognitive function), and maybe even prevent the development of Alzheimer's. Eating foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants--including fish, nuts, olive oil, and blueberries--is especially helpful, as is getting plenty of exercise, which increases blood flow to the brain and stimulates hormone production and nerve growth. Exercising the brain through such activities as reading, writing, working puzzles, visiting museums, and playing cards may also help prevent memory cobwebs, though there's no guarantee such activities will have a significant effect.


Organizational tools can help someone whose memory is already failing. Developing and following a routine--and jotting down reminders--increases the chances that a forgetful person will recall vital information. Being organized can also make it easier for people with memory loss to set priorities and keep the list of things they have to remember simple.


"Memory Boosters." National Geographic (November 2007), 154. Fox, Maggie.
"Want a Better Memory? Stop and Smell the Roses." Reuters, March 12, 2007.
"How Memories Build During Sleep." BBC News, January 26, 2004.
Rauscher, Megan. "An Active Brain May Help Keep Alzheimer's at Bay." Neuroscience Research News (June 28, 2007).
Bakalar, Nicholas. "Memory. Want to Improve Your Recall? Try Sleeping on It." New York Times , July 18, 2006.
Rabin, Roni Caryn. "BRAIN; For a Sharp Brain, Stimulation." New York Times , May 13, 2008.
Whitby, Paul. "Memory Techniques." Brain Injury Resource Foundation, February 29, 2008.
"About Dementia." Dementia.com
Other Resources "Memory Game." NGM.com.
Factors That Negatively Affect Memory
By Deborah Neffa
ver. 3 - Wed, Jul 9, 2008 at 11:56:03 AM
Additional candles on the birthday cake could be to blame for an increasingly forgetful mind--the brain's cortex may begin shrinking when people are in their 30s, and by the time they reach their 40s, they may begin to notice subtle changes in their ability to multitask or recall new information. But aging isn't the only factor responsible for memory loss. Others include: Stress and Anxiety . Both short- and long-term stress can suppress the immune system and harm memory. Acute stress leads to the release of a hormone, cortisol, which in high doses can disrupt the brain's process of collecting and storing memories. Long-term stress can prolong extreme emotions in the brain and damage the normal process of storing or properly managing traumatic memories. The hippocampus, a region essential for the formation and retrieval of long-term memories, is particularly sensitive to cortisol's negative effects. According to a mid-1990s study of American war veterans and post-traumatic stress disorder, there's a link between exposure to severe stress and a shrinking of the hippocampus.


Excessive Alcohol Consumption . An occasional glass of wine can improve memory, but excessive alcohol consumption can have the opposite effect. Alcoholism can kill brain cells and cause short-term memory "blackouts" as well as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, a form of severe amnesia caused by vitamin B1 deficiencies that can lead to permanent brain damage.


Sleep Deprivation . Less than eight hours of sleep a night has been shown to drastically impair memory and concentration by preventing the brain from consolidating new memories and repairing damaged ones.


Nutritional Deficiencies . If memory efficiency and preservation are at the top of your priority list, antioxidants should be up there too. Foods high in antioxidants (such as blueberries and dried red beans) can help the body neutralize free radicals, molecules that damage cells and can cause oxidative stress, part of the aging process that can lead to Alzheimer's disease. A diet deficient in folic acid and vitamins B12 and B6 also increases the risk of brain disease.


Blows to the Head . Rough sports, such as football and boxing, or any other activity that can cause head injuries increases the chances that a person will lose consciousness or have a stroke, which in turn can lead to short-term memory loss and potentially dementia.


"Memory Changes in Older Adults." American Psychological Association, June 11, 2006.

Winerman, L. "Reducing Stress Helps Both Brain and Body." Monitor on Psychology (October 2006), 18.
Rabin, Roni Caryn. "BRAIN; For a Sharp Brain, Stimulation." New York Times , May 13, 2008.
"Short-term Stress Can Affect Learning and Memory." Science Daily (March 13, 2008).
"Does Drug Abuse Affect Memory?" BBC Radio 4.
"What Is Emotional Memory?" BBC Radio 4.
"Answers to Questions About Memory." BBC.
"Getting Smart About Alzheimer's." Health & Nutrition Letter (May 2005).
Emotions and Memory
By Deborah Neffa
ver. 2 - Wed, Jul 9, 2008 at 11:56:40 AM
The amygdala, an almond-shaped set of neurons in the brain that responds to emotional events (especially ones that involve fear), affects the kinds of memories the brain records. "Flashbulb" memories--memories that include vivid, specific details of your surroundings when you learned about a shocking or memorable event, such as the September 11 attacks--are also evidence of the connection between emotion and memory.


The type of emotion, positive or negative, people feel during an event may determine the details they recall. Those who experience negative emotions tend to remember specific details; those who experience positive emotions tend to take a broader view of the situation. A victim of an armed robbery, for example, might have been so afraid of being shot and so focused on the gun that he'll remember details of the weapon better than details of his assaulter's face.


People who are anxious and distressed are also more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment, a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia or even Alzheimer's.


In some circumstances, emotions have been known to trigger false memories, allowing people to remember events that never occurred and subconsciously suppress unpleasant memories (a phenomenon called selective amnesia).


"Distress-prone People More Likely to Develop Memory Problems." Science Daily (June 12, 2007).
Dingfelder, Sadie. "Feelings' Sway Over Memory." Monitor on Psychology (September 2005), 54.
"Why False Memories Sometimes Feel Like They Are Absolutely True." Science Daily (November 8, 2007).
"What Are False Memories?" BBC Radio 4.
"What Is Emotional Memory?" BBC Radio 4.
Long-term and Short-term Memory
By Deborah Neffa
ver. 2 - Wed, Jul 9, 2008 at 11:57:13 AM
Short-term, or working, memory refers to details that can be remembered for up to about 30 seconds but that then fade away. It temporarily stores and manages information needed to perform complex reasoning tasks like figuring out how much change you should get after you make a purchase. One way to test short-term memory is by counting how many random words or numbers a person can recall right after reading or hearing a series of them. The average adult can remember seven words or numbers.


Long-term, or permanent, memory refers to stored information that's available for longer periods, ranging from minutes up to a lifetime. Facts as well as impressions of people are stored in long-term memory, though sometimes the information is difficult to extract. If certain long-term memories are to survive, people need to recall them occasionally--remembering something strengthens the neural connection to it, making it harder to forget. Long-term memory includes declarative, or explicit, memory, which is responsible for the facts and events we consciously store and recall, such as a friend's name. It also includes procedural, or implicit, memory--information that once learned doesn't need to be consciously recalled, such as basic skills, motor movement, and emotions.


Certain diseases, such as Alzheimer's, damage the cognitive systems that control memory. In the early stages, Alzheimer's usually affects long-term memory, disrupting a person's ability to remember recent events and experiences. In the later stages of the disease, short-term memory is also affected--people begin to lose awareness of their surroundings, and they need help performing everyday tasks such as getting dressed properly.


"Naps Help Your Memory, New Study Suggests." Science Daily (January 8, 2008).
"What Is Long-term Memory?" BBC Radio 4.
"Stages of Alzheimer's." Alzheimer's Association.